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Ganoderma Lucidum Polysaccharides
● Ganoderma Lucidum Polysaccharides:Anti-tumor and Immunoregulation

Introduction: The School of Chinese Medicine, the University of Hong Kong (HKUSCM) indicated in Scientific Reports (2018) that Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides can induce macrophages in terms of enhancing phagocytosis, promoting the production of cytokines and inhibiting the survival and metastasis of cancer cells. effect. It is proposed that Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides have antitumor and immune regulation effects.

References: Li LF, Liu HB, Zhang QW, et al.Comprehensive comparison of polysaccharides from Ganoderma lucidum and G. sinense: chemical, antitumor, immunomodulating and gut-microbiota modulatory properties.Sci Rep. 2018 Apr 18;8(1):6172
● Polysaccharides:Anti-tumor, Anti-bacteria and Anti-oxidation

Introduction: Researchers from the University of Maribor proposed in Molecules (2018) that Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides have positive effects on anti-tumor, anti-bacteria and anti-oxidation.

References: Cör D, Knez Ž,, Knez Hrnčič M.Antitumour, Antimicrobial, Antioxidant and Antiacetylcholinesterase Effect of Ganoderma Lucidum Terpenoids and Polysaccharides: A Review.Molecules. 2018 Mar 13;23(3). pii: E649
● Polysaccharides:Immunoregulation and Anti-cancer
Introduction: Experts from various institutions such as Life Science Research Center of Louisiana State University published a research paper in Anticancer Agents Med Chem (2018): the evidences from in vitro and in vivo studies indicate that Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides have potential anticancer effects such as immune regulation, anti-proliferation, apoptosis promotion, anti-metastasis and anti-angiogenesis.

References: Sohretoglu D,Huang S. Ganoderma lucidum Polysaccharides as An Anti-cancer Agent. Anticancer Agents Med Chem. 2018;18(5):667-674
● Polysaccharides:Anti-tumor and Immunoregulation

Introduction: A joint study by Chinese Ministry of Health and Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences found that Ganoderma lucidum water extracting solution (mainly Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides) significantly inhibits sheep erythrocyte antibodies in tumor-bearing mice, indicating that Ganoderma lucidum has the effect of inhibiting tumor growth and regulating immunity.

References: He Laiying, Dai Yin, Cai Youyu, Ju Limei, Ma Yaowen. Effects of Ganoderma Lucidum Extracting Solution on Immune Function and Toxicity in Mice [J]. Chinese Journal of Food Health,1997(04):23-26+49-50.
● Polysaccharides:Boosting Immunity

Introduction: The mechanism of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides enhancing immunity was discovered in a joint study by the people's liberation army No.401 hospital and the first military area university. They discovered the effect of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides on the expression of mouse macrophages lL-la and TNF-a mRNA, which proved that Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides can enhance immunity.

References: Li Mingchun, Lei Linsheng, Liang Dongsheng, Xu Ziming, Yang Shuqin, Sun Lisha. Effects of Ganoderma lucidum Polysaccharide on Expression of Interleukin-1α and Tumor Necrosis Factor-α mRNA in Mouse Macrophages[J].Chinese Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 2000(03) ): 237-240.
● Polysaccharides:Anti-tumor

Introduction: Prof. Zhang Qunhao, a researcher of Harvard Medical School and Massachusetts General Hospital, and Professor Lin Zhibin, a professor at Peking University and the father of Ganoderma Lucidum, found that GL-B, a polysaccharide of Ganoderma lucidum, has an indirect anti-tumor effect and reveals its mechanism of action.

References: Zhang Qunhao, Lin Zhibin. Study on the antitumor effect and mechanism of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide GL-B[J].Chinese Journal of Integrated Traditional and Western Medicine,1999(09):544-547.

Ganoderma Lucidum Triterpenes
● Triterpenes: Anti-tumor

Introduction: The University of Taiwan and the Institute of Chemistry of the Chinese Academy of Sciences jointly said in Life Science (2003) that the triterpenoids in Ganoderma lucidum inhibit the activity of protein kinase C, activate mitotic protein kinase, prolong the G2 interval of tumor cells, thereby inhibiting human liver tumor cells growth.

References: Shwu-Bin Lin, Chyi -Hann Lia, Shiuh-Sheng Lee , etal .Triterpene-enriched extracts from Ganoderma lucidum inhibit growth of hepatoma cells via suppressing protein ki-nase C, activating mitogen-activated protein kinases and G2-phase cell cycle arrest. Life Sciences, 2003, 72:2381-2390
● Triterpenes: Anti-tumor

Introduction: National University of Singapore and Massey University of North Palmerston, New Zealand, jointly indicated in Phytotherapy Research (2015) that triterpenes have anti-tumor activity – ganoderic acids A, B, C2, C6 are typical examples.

References: Weimei Ruan,Ying Wei,David G. Popovich. Distinct Responses of Cytotoxic Ganoderma lucidum Triterpenoids in Human Carcinoma Cells[J]. Phytotherapy Research,2015,29(11).
● Triterpenes:Induction of apoptosis of metastatic lung tumor cells

Introduction: The State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering of East China University of Science and Technology stated in the international weekly magazine "Life Science" (2006) that ganoderic acid T (GA-T) is a triterpenoid in Ganoderma lucidum, which is found to exert cytotoxicity on various human cancer cell lines in a dose-dependent manner but it is less toxic to normal people. The results show that GA-T induces metastatic lung tumor cell apoptosis through intrinsic pathways related to mitochondrial dysfunction and protein P53 expression. It may be a potentially useful chemotherapeutic agent.

References: Wen Tang,Jian-Wen Liu,Wei-Ming Zhao,Dong-Zhi Wei,Jian-Jiang Zhong. Ganoderic acid T from Ganoderma lucidum mycelia induces mitochondria mediated apoptosis in lung cancer cells[J]. Life Sciences,2006,80(3)
● Triterpenes: Inhibition of tumor cell activity

Introduction: The Institute of Materia Medica (IMM) at Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences (CAMS) and Peking Union Medical College (PUMC) indicated in International Journal of Laboratory Medicine (2017) that the triterpenoids of Ganoderma lucidum show different inhibitory effects on 5 kinds of tumor cells.

References: Yan Zheng, Wang Hongxu, Liu Liying, Du Guohua, Chen Ruoyun.Research on in vitro antitumor activity of Ganoderma triterpenoids [J]. International Journal of Laboratory Medicine, 2017,38 (05): 633-634 + 637
● Ganoderic Acid A: Induction of Apoptosis of Glioma Cells

Introduction: According to related articles in Chinese Journal of Comparative Medicine (2016), Ganoderma acid A can induce human glioma cell U251 apoptosis, inhibit its proliferation and invasion and suppress KdrDR mRNA and protein expression, suggesting that this may be one of its antitumor mechanisms.

References: Liu Haipeng, Zheng Kebin, Shan Xiaosong. Effects of Ganoderic Acid A on Proliferation, Apoptosis and Invasion of Human Glioma Cell U251[J]. China Journal of Comparative Medicine, 2016,26 (03): 64-69.
● Ganoderic Acid Me/Ganoderic Acid T: Anti-tumor

Introduction: At the 2nd Chinese Pharmacological Society Symposium, Professor Liu Jianwen, Member of China Association of Chinese Medicine and Member of Professional Committee of Chinese Anti-cancer Association, said in a report that ganoderic acid Me and ganoderic acid T can inhibit anti-tumor growth and metastasis and improve the activity of host NK cells.

References: Liu Jianwen. Study on the Antitumor Activity of Ganoderic Acid Me and Ganoderic Acid T [A]. Division of tonic pharmacology, Chinese Pharmacological Society. Compilation of Papers of the 2nd Symposium of Division of Tonic Pharmacology of Chinese Pharmacological Society[C]. Division of Tonic Pharmacology, Chinese Pharmacological Society: 2012: 2.
● Neutral Triterpenes: Anti-tumor

Introduction: A joint study by the National Engineering Research Center of Edible Fungi, the relevant research office of the Ministry of Agriculture and other institutions found that Ganoderma lucidum neutral triterpenes can inhibit the proliferation of tumor cells and induce the apoptosis of colon cancer cells.

References: Tang Qingjiu, Ji Zhe, Hao Ruixia, Liu Yanfang, Yang Yan, Zhang Jinsong. Anti-tumor Effects of Neutral Triterpenoids from Ganoderma Lucidum [J]. Journal of Edible Fungi, 2010,17 (01): 60-64.
● Triterpenes: Protection of acute liver injury and improvement of liver function

Introduction: Medical College of Nantong University stated in Modern Journal of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine (2009) that Ganoderma lucidum triterpenes can significantly reduce ALT (alanine aminotransferase), AST (aspartate aminotransferase), and GGT (gamma-glutamyltransferase) in mouse serum. Enzyme). Pathological sections clearly show that Ganoderma lucidum triterpenes can significantly reduce the degree of liver damage in mice.

References: Li Min, Qiu Wenqian, Huang Jinhua. Research on Preventive and Protective Effects of Ganoderma Lucidum Triterpenes on Liver Injury in Mice [J]. Modern Journal of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, 2009,18 (32): 3933-3934

● Nucleosides: Having the highest uridine content.

Introduction: Institute of Chinese Medical Sciences, University of Macau and Hong Kong Baptist University jointly proved in Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis that uridine is a nucleoside whose content is highest in Ganoderma samples.

References: J.L. Gao,Kelvin S.Y. Leung,Y.T. Wang,C.M. Lai,S.P. Li,L.F. Hu,G.H. Lu,Z.H. Jiang,Z.L. Yu. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of nucleosides and nucleobases in Ganoderma spp. by HPLC–DAD-MS[J]. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis,2007,44(3).
● Uridines: Anti-virus

Introduction: Experts from University of Gdansk and Silesian University of Technology stated in Molecules on July 2018 that uracil deoxyribonucleosides has anti-influenza A virus activity.

References: Krol E, Wandzik I,,Pastuch-Gawolek G, Szewczyk B.Anti-Hepatitis C Virus Activity of Uridine Derivatives of 2-Deoxy Sugars.Molecules. 2018 Jun 27;23(7). pii: E1547
● Adenosine: Alleviating Pain

Introduction: Tianjin Medical University General Hospital explained the mechanism of adenosine on alleviating pain in Foreign Medicine on the basis of previous studies.

References: Wang Haiyun. The role of adenosine in neurogenic pain [J].Foreign Medical Sciences. Anesthesiology and Resuscitation Volume, 2002 (03): 145-147.

● Sterols: Anti-inflammation and Anti-tumor

Introduction: Professors from College of Science and Technology, Nihon University pointed out in Chemistry & Biodiversity that triterpene acids and sterols from Ganoderma lucidum have the effects of anti-inflammation and anti-tumor.

References: Akihisa T, Nakamura Y, Tagata M, Tokuda H, et al.Anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor-promoting effects of triterpene acids and sterols from the fungus Ganoderma lucidum.Chem Biodivers. 2007 Feb;4(2):224-31
● Sterols: Anti-cancer

Introduction: Universities in China jointly found that sterols has the effect of suppressing cancer growth.

References: Cui Jianguo, Zeng Longmei, Su Jingyu, Peng Wenlie, Xu Anlong. Synthesis of Some Polyhydroxysterols and Investigation of Relationship Between Their Structure and Cytotoxicity
[J] .Chemical Journal of Chinese Universities, 2000 (09): 1399-1404
● Sterols: Overcoming drug resistance of tumor cells

Introduction: State Key Laboratory of Applied Microbiology Southern China,Guangdong Institute of Microbiology pointed out in Plos ONE (2010) that ergosterol peroxide is more active in inducing miR-378 cell death than inducing GFP cell death. Compared to control group cells, ergosterol peroxide with lower concentration is required to induce the death of miR-378 transfected cells. With further clinical development, ergosterol peroxide represents a promising new agent that can overcome the drug resistance of tumor cells.

References: PLOS ONE (eISSN-1932-6203) is an international, peer-reviewed, open-access, online publication.
● Sterol:Anti-aging

Introduction: Zhejiang University, Chiba University and Sichuan Agricultural University jointly stated in Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry (2009) that sterols play an important role in anti-aging.

References: Yufang Weng,Lan Xiang,Akira Matsuura,Yang Zhang,Qianming Huang,Jianhua Qi. Ganodermasides A and B, two novel anti-aging ergosterols from spores of a medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum on yeast via UTH1 gene[J]. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry,2009,18(3).

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